Kissan Kerala youtube channel

Kissan Kerala youtube channel provides informative videos in malayalam  on Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries and allied topics.

Please see the play list in this channel to view the complete list of videos.

Comparison among malayalam and other languages available in Google Translate

Malayalam Language -38 million speakers language is excluded in Google Translate!! .See the list of languages available in Google Translate and native speakers  which is less than the Classical Malayalam language .

Language and Native speakers

  1. Afrikaans-7.1 million ,
  2. Albanian-7.4 million ,
  3. Armenian-6 million ,
  4. Azerbaijani-23 million ,
  5. Basque-7.2 Lakhs,
  6. Belarusian-4 million ,
  7. Bosnian-3.5 million ,
  8. Bulgarian-10 million ,
  9. Catalan-7.2 million ,
  10. Cebuano-21 million ,
  11. Croatian-5.5 million ,
  12. Czech-10 million ,
  13. Danish-5.6 million ,
  14. Dutch-23 million ,
  15. Esperanto-2 million ,
  16. Estonian-1.05 million ,
  17. Filipino-28 million ,
  18. Finnish-5 million ,
  19. Galician-3.2 million ,
  20. Georgian-7 million ,
  21. Greek-13 million ,
  22. Haitian Creole-9.6 million ,
  23. Hebrew-5.3 million , 
  24. Hmong-4 million ,
  25. Hungarian-14 million ,
  26. Icelandic-3.2 Lakhs , 
  27. Indonesian-23 million , 
  28. Irish-1.80 million , 
  29. Khmer-16 million , 
  30. Lao- 25 million , 
  31. Latin - Dead Langauge , 
  32. Latvian-1.3 million , 
  33. Lithuanian-3.1 million ,
  34. Macedonian-2.5 million ,
  35. Maltese-4.3Lakhs , 
  36. Norwegian-5 million ,
  37. Romanian-25 million , 
  38. Serbian-10.2 million , 
  39. Slovak-5 million , 
  40. Slovenian-2.5 million , 
  41. Swedish-8.5 million ,
  42. Thai-20 million , 
  43. Ukrainian-37 million , 
  44. Welsh-7.2 Lakhs
  45. Yiddish-1.5 million

Malayalam -38 million

Indian Civil Service Exam Help

Union-State and interstate communication

The language in which communications between different states, or from the union government to a state or a person in a state, shall be sent is regulated by the Official Languages Act and, for states other than Tamil Nadu, by the Official Languages Rules. Communication between states who use Hindi as their official language is required to be in Hindi, whereas communication between a state whose official language is Hindi and one whose is not is required to be in English, or in Hindi with an accompanying English translation (unless the receiving state agrees to dispense with the translation).

Communication between the union and states which use Hindi as their official language (classified by the Official Language Rules as "the states in Region A"), and with persons who live in those states, is generally in Hindi, except in certain cases.Communication with a second category of states, which do not use Hindi as their official language but have elected to communicate with the union in Hindi (currently Gujarat and Maharashtra) is usually in Hindi, whilst communications sent to an individual in those states may be in either Hindi or English. Communication with all other states, and with people living in them, is in English.

India -State Legislature and administration-Language

The constitutional provisions in relation to use of the official language in legislation at the State level largely mirror those relating to the official language at the central level, with minor variations. State legislatures may conduct their business in their official language, Hindi or (for a transitional period, which the legislature can extend if it so chooses) English, and members who cannot use any of these have the same rights to their mother tongue with the Speaker's permission. The authoritative text of all laws must be in English, unless Parliament passes a law permitting a state to use another language, and if the original text of a law is in a different language, an authoritative English translation of all laws must be prepared.

The state has the right to regulate the use of its official language in public administration, and in general, neither the constitution nor any central enactment imposes any restriction on this right. However, every person submitting a petition for the redress of a grievance to an officer or authority of the state government has a constitutional right to submit it in any language used in that state, regardless of its official status.

In addition, the constitution grants the central government, acting through the President, the power to issue certain directives to the government of a state in relation to the use of minority languages for official purposes. The President may direct a State to officially recognise a language spoken in its territory for specified purposes and in specified regions, if its speakers demand it and satisfy him that a substantial proportion of the State's population desire its use. Similarly, States and local authorities are required to endeavour to provide primary education in the mother tongue for all linguistic minorities, regardless of whether or not their language is official in that State, and the President has the power to issue directions he deems necessary to ensure that they are provided these facilities.

The Hindu News :‘Early schooling must be in mother-tongue'

An award-winning Jaipur-based neurologist has advocated imparting primary education to children in their mother-tongue, saying it would produce youngsters possessing “fundamentally strong personalities” bestowed with wisdom, motivation, better communication skills and creativity.

Need for establishing Library Council of India (LCI)

Library profession in India  need a quality agency or a statutory body  like MCI,BAR Council of India for :
  • Establishment and maintenance of standards for LIS education and LIS profession
  • Improving the professional status of library staffs .
  • Recognition of foreign LIS qualifications in India.
  • Accreditation of LIS schools, Departments in India
  • Registration of librarians with recognized qualifications.
  • Keeping a directory of all registered Librarians.
  • Better remuneration  of Library Staffs.
  • Affiliations of various State and national associations
  • Co ordination of library activities in india
  • Sharing of resources....and much more...........

Open-source ILS

  •     Evergreen
  •     Greenstone
  •     Invenio
  •     Koha
  •     Kuali OLE
  •     NewGenLib
  •     PhpMyBibli
  •     OpenBiblio
  •     VuFind

List of next-generation library catalogs

An online public access catalog (often abbreviated as OPAC or simply "library catalog") is an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries. Users typically search a library catalog to locate books, periodicals, audio/visual materials or other items under control of a library.

As access to the internet became more accessible to more people library users have grown more and more accustomed to these sites and search engines. They have become increasingly dissatisfied with the search mechanisms of older library catalog systems. This has, in turn, led to vocal criticisms of these systems within the library community itself, and in recent years to the development of newer (often termed 'next-generation') catalogs. However, the large cost associated with these new systems has significantly hindered the widespread use of new systems.

The newest generation of library catalog systems are distinguished from earlier OPACs by their use of more sophisticated search technologies, in particular faceted search, and features aimed at greater user interaction and participation with the system, including tagging, reviewing, and RSS feeds.

However, the usefulness of these catalogs is limited by inconsistent metadata standards that vary from publisher to publisher. There is also the concern that only newly digitized material can be found while older material, published on different platforms that are no longer supported is effectively lost. Libraries are then faced with the expensive and time consuming task of reapplying new metadata tags to ensure these older records can become discoverable. At present there is no single standard for metadata records.

See below for a list of some next generation library catalog systems.


    Axiell Arena
    Carmen (LANius)
    CS Library
    Ebsco Discovery Service
    LS2 PAC and LS2 Kids from The Library Corporation (TLC)
    POLARIS PAC, Mobile PAC, Polaris Library Systems
    Primo (ExLibris)
    Prism 3 (Capita)
    Retrievo (KEEP SOLUTIONS)
    Serials Solutions Summon
    VTLS Inc.
    WorldCat Local (OCLC)

Open source

    Avanti MicroLCS
    Blacklight OPAC
    Rapi package
    Social Online Public Access Catalog (SOPAC)

Glossary of library and information science


    abstract – a brief set of statements that summarize, classifies, evaluates, or describes the important points of a text, particularly a journal article. An abstract is typically found on the first page of a scholarly article. Because an abstract summarizes an article, it is very useful for either browsing or keyword searching.

    annotation – an explanatory or critical note or commentary. Annotation is also the process of adding an explanatory or critical note or commentary to a text. Reference lists are often annotated with comments about what each resource covered and how useful it was.

    appendix – a group of supplementary material appended to a text. It is usually related to the material in the main part of the text but not so closely related to it that it should be put into the main text. Put background information and supporting facts in the appendices. An example of a file that should be put in an appendix is a file of detailed charts and graphs of recent research closely related to the paper's main topic.

    archive – a place in which historical documents and other records are preserved. Usually operated by large organizations, they may or may not be open to the public. The University of Toronto, for example has an archive that requires a five story building and contains several climate controlled vaults. A virtual archive is similar except the documents have no physical presence and seldom have historical value.

    author – an originator of a creative work, particularly a writer of a text. Searching by author can be an effective form of information gathering.

    authority control – a cataloging process in library management of assigning unique headings to subjects such as author names and book titles to enable greater efficiency in referencing.[1][2]


    bibliography – a list of writings related to a specific subject, writings by a specific author, or writings used in producing a specific text.

    bibiographic database is a computer based list of library resources. Typically each record contains the call number, author, title, publishing information, and other card catalog information.

    Boolean logic – the algebraic system, developed by George Boole that is applied to Boolean expressions that contain Boolean operators such as AND, OR, NOT AND, and XOR (exclusive OR). This binary algebraic system is used primarily in switching circuits and database searches. Boolean operators are not to be confused with proximity operators such as NEAR.

    browse – to inspect something casually, particularly to use an internet browser to casually inspect Web pages. This involves following links from page to page (also called surfing) rather than searching directly. The main difference between browsing and searching is that with browsing you have very little advance knowledge of what will be on the next page.


    call number – an identification marker used in libraries to categorize and locate books and other resources. Each resource is assigned a combination of letters and numbers which correspond with a location in the library. For example the call number for the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is BF76.7 .P83 2001.

    catalog (or catalogue) – a complete and systematically organized enumeration of items, particularly the complete enumeration of a libraries' resources on a set of paper cards (card catalog) or in an electronic database (bibliographic database).

    citation – the quoting or mentioning of a source. All works used in preparing a paper should be cited.

    citation search – a search, by name, of all references to an individual. Some databases have a specific citation search option, otherwise you use a full-text search. For an example of a database that has a specific citation search option go to the University of Michigan Library Database.

    Community analysis – the analysis of a set of people. Such analyses enable librarians to know the needs of patrons and hopefully provide better services to them. In a city library district, the set of relevant people would be all those who live in the city or those people eligible to use the library. Analysis may also be restricted to a subset of eligible library users.

    controlled vocabulary – limiting searches to the exact subject headings contained in the Library of Congress. An example would be "History – Bibliography etc". Some indexes, like Wilson Indexes, have their own system of headings and hence their own controlled vocabulary.

    copyright – the legal right granted to a copyright holder for the exclusive sale, distribution or reproduction of a creative work. It is a form of intellectual property that prevents others from using a creative work without consent of the owner. For example, Thomas Mann holds the copyright on the book The Oxford Guide to Library Research.

    cross reference database – a collection of records that have one or more fields that reference other related records. These connections (for example between "marketing" and "promotion") make browsing very productive and allow related-items searches.


    descriptor – an index term used to identify a record in a database. It can consist of a word, phrase, or alphanumerical term. It can describe the content of the record or be an arbitrary code. When a descriptor is descriptive, it can be an effective search parameter.

    dissertation – a written treatise or thesis, usually lengthy, usually authored by a doctoral candidate, usually directed by a faculty advisor, and usually intended to advance the state of the art in a given discipline. There can be an oral component to the process, in which the dissertation must be defended in front of critical judges. Dissertation searches are valuable because of their currency.

    document delivery – the transfer of a database record, or other information resource, to the end user. It can involve direct internet or email transfers, CD delivery via mail, paper delivery via mail, or delivery via interlibrary loan.


    edition – a version of a published text, or all the instances of a published text issued at a given time. An example would be the 2nd edition (2001).

    entry – any record, or a field in a record, that has been included, or entered, into a database. An entry word is the headword in a dictionary, encyclopedia, or glossary.


    field – an element of a database record. It contains one type of information and has a unique address. All or most other records in the database have a similar field. An example is the field "name".

    free-text search –

    1. is a simple word or character search, usually with very few Boolean, proximity, or scope limiting options. It is simple and fast.

    2. a search in which all the entries are freed from their original format of presentation. Text that originated in a journal article looks much the same as text that originated in a glossary or chat room.

    3. the deliberate limiting of the scope of the search parameters to include only records that are available free of charge.

    full text database – a collection of records containing complete versions of the original source, rather than just bibliographies, abstracts, or abridgements. An example is JSTOR. A related concept is that of a full text search which searches only sources that are complete, and ignores those records that are mere abstracts or descriptors.


    interlibrary loan or interloan – a service whereby a user of one library can borrow books or receive photocopies of documents that are owned by another library. The user makes a request with their local library, which, acting as an intermediary, identifies owners of the desired item, places the request, receives the item, makes it available to the user, and arranges for its return. This resource sharing system is being promoted by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA).


    journal – a periodical publication that presents articles in a specific subject area. These may be academic journals, trade journals, or organizational newsletters.


    keyword search – a search of a database using some keyword, a significant word from the title, abstract, or descriptor of a record as a point of reference to the article's overall content.


    literature search – A systematic and thorough search of all material, print or electronic, published on a given topic. This can include books, journals, newspapers, catalogs, encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, bibliographies, handbooks, manuals, indexes, yearbooks, gazetteers, directories, chronologies, almanacs, and guides.


    menu – a list of options from which a computer user can choose. This saves the user from having to memorize a set of commands. It also reduces the decision down to the basic information required (note the etymology from the French word minuet meaning small).

    monograph – a written document on a single subject, usually scholarly in nature and of approximately book length. They are valuable information sources because of their depth in a limited subject area.


    operators – symbols that represent operations. In computer science there are binary and unary operators depending on the number of elements or records an operator acts on. In database searching there are Boolean and Proximity operators. Boolean operators are a subclass of logical operators (Logical operators are binary operators that manipulate data at the bit level.). A Boolean operator manipulates the binary "true/false" value.

    online catalog or electronic catalog – a record of the holdings of an institution (e.g. library or museum) or group of institutions (a consortium), often searchable, that can be found on the Internet.

    open source- in production and development a philosophy or methodology promoting free redistribution and access to an end product's design and implementation details.


    periodical index – an alphabetized listing of works that are published at regular intervals of more than one day.

    plagiarism – the passing off as your own, the work of others'. Original sources are not given credit.

    primary source – the originator of a primary record. A primary record is a resource created by the same people that initially experienced or used it. They create the records for their own purposes, records that often remain unpublished. Sometimes they witness an event, sometimes they are involved in an event, and sometimes the record is directly created by the event.


    record – an individual entry in a database and simultaneously a collection of related data fields. Each field, although related, is of a different type to all the other fields in the record (and this is what differentiates a record from an array).

    Reference Service – the personal assistance provided to the library users in finding information. All the functions performed by a trained librarian employed in the reference section of a library to meet the information needs of patrons (in person, by telephone, or electronically), including but not limited to answering substantive questions, instructing users in the selection and use of appropriate tools and techniques for finding information, conducting searches on behalf of the patron, directing users to the location of library resources, assisting in the evaluation of information, referring patrons to resources outside the library when appropriate, etc. are regarded as the services provided under library reference services.

    review article – a periodical article that describes, analyses', and criticizes a book, journal article, movie, or other creative or academic work.


    scholarly article – an article, usually in a scholarly journal, that deals with academic subject matter at an advanced level.

    search strategy – a generalized set of technique used in the process of determining what information you currently have, determining what information you need, and determining how to get it. Some possible strategies include; controlled vocabulary searches, specific entry searches, browsing, general scanning, broad to narrow searches, adjacent item browsing, subject tracings searches, keyword searches, citation searches, literature searches, cross reference searches, and chat room questions and other direct people contact searches.

    subject heading – the name of the category that a record is included under. For example, the record "natural frequency of vibration" might be found under the subject heading of "Acoustics", and acoustics, in turn, might be found under the subject heading "Physics".

    subject directory – an hierarchical grouping of related subject headings. The tree structure shows relationships between subject headings. They can be found either inside a database or separate from a data base.


    thesaurus – a book of synonyms, often also containing antonyms. An example is Roget's Thesaurus. In database searching, a thesaurus strategy is to use multiple iterations to search for related words and generate results. The database will often suggest synonyms and related words to try.

    truncation – the shortening of a search word, field, or record. In the case of truncating a search word, this is a strategy used to search among multiple variants or spellings of a word. The asterisk (*) is generally used as a wildcard to replace a letter or letters. An example is invest* which will pick up instances of invest, investor, investments, investigations, etc. In some databases the asterisk must be accompanied with a number that define the number of characters that can be truncated.

Library science journals

  1.     ABI Technik
  2.     African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science
  3.     American Archivist
  4.     Annual Review of Information Science and Technology
  5.     Archivaria
  6.     Archives and Museum Informatics
  7.     Cataloging & Classification Quarterly
  8.     The Charleston Advisor
  9.     Children & Libraries
  10.     College & Research Libraries
  11.     College & Research Libraries News
  12.     Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship
  13.     Evidence Based Library and Information Practice (journal)
  14.     Florida Libraries
  15.     Information & Culture
  16.     Information Processing and Management
  17.     Information Research (journal)
  19.     The Journal of Academic Librarianship
  20.     Journal of Documentation
  21.     Journal of Information Science
  22.     Journal of Informetrics
  23.     Journal of Library Administration
  24.     Journal of Religious & Theological Information
  25.     Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology
  26.     Knowledge Organization (journal)
  27.     Library and information science
  28.     Library and Information Science Abstracts
  29.     Library Literature and Information Science
  30.     The Library Quarterly
  31.     Library Review (journal)
  32.     Library Trends
  33.     Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts
  34.     MLA Forum
  35.     Notes (journal)
  36.     Portal – Libraries and the Academy
  37.     Public Libraries (journal)
  38.     The Public-Access Computer Systems Review
  39.     Reference and User Services Quarterly
  40.     Scientometrics (journal)

Library science magazines

  1. American Libraries
  2. Ariadne (web magazine)
  3. Book Links
  4. Booklist
  5. D-Lib Magazine
  6. Library Journal
  7. News Journal, (National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped)
  8. School Library Journal
  9. Wilson Library Bulletin
  10. Young Adult Library Services