December 2013 UGC NET Paper I Answer Keys

1. The post-industrial society is designated as
(A) Information society
(B) Technology society
(C) Mediated society
(D) Non-agricultural society
Answer: (A)

2. The initial efforts for internet based communication was for
(A) Commercial communication
(B) Military purposes
(C) Personal interaction
(D) Political campaigns
Answer: (B)

3. Internal communication within institutions done through
Answer: (A)

4. Virtual reality provides
(A) Sharp pictures
(B) Individual audio
(C) Participatory experience
(D) Preview of new films
Answer: (C)

5. The first virtual university of India
(A) Andhra Pradesh
(B) Maharashtra
(C) Uttar Pradesh
(D) Tamil Nadu
Answer: (B)

6. Arrange the following books in chronological order in which they appeared. Use the code given below:
(i) Limits to Growth
ii) Silent Spring
(iii) Our Common Future
(iv) Resourceful Earth
(A) (i), (iii), (iv), (ii)
(B) (ii), (iii), (i), (iv)
(C) (ii), (i), (iii), (iv)
(D) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
Answer: (D)

7. Which one of the following continents is at a greater risk of desertification?
(A) Africa
(B) Asia
(C) South America
(D) North America
Answer: (A)

8. "Women are closer to nature than men." What kind of perspective is this?
(A) Realist
(B) Essentialist
(C) Feminist
(D) Deep ecology
Answer: (C)

9. Which one of the following is not a matter a global concern in the removal of tropical forests?
(A) Their ability to absorb the chemicals that contribute to depletion of ozone layer.
(B) Their role in maintaining the oxygen and carbon balance of the earth.
(C) Their ability to regulate surface and air temperatures; moisture content and reflectivity.
(D) Their contribution to the biological diversity of the planet.
Answer: (D)

10. The most comprehensive approach to address the problems of man-environment interaction is one of the following:
(A) Natural Resource Conservation Approach
(B) Urban-industrial Growth Oriented Approach
(C) Rural-agricultural Growth Oriented Approach
(D) Watershed Development Approach
Answer: (A)

11. The major source of the pollutant gas, carbon mono-oxide (CO), in urban areas is
(A) Thermal power sector
(B) Transport sector
(C) Industrial sector
(D) Domestic sector
Answer: (B)

12. ln a fuel cell driven vehicle, the energy is obtained from the combustion of
(A) Methane
(B) Hydrogen
Answer: (B)

13. Which one of the following Councils has been disbanded in 2013?
(A) Distance Education Council (DEC)
(B) National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
(C) National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)
(D) National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC)
Answer: (A)

14. Which of the following statements 'are correct about the National Assessment and Accreditation Council?
It is an autonomous institution.
It is tasked with the responsibility of assessing and accrediting institutions of higher education.
It is located in Delhi.
It has regional offices.
Select the correct answer from the codes given beiow:
Codes :
(A) 1 and 3
(B) 1 and 2
(C) 1, 2 and 4
(D) 2, 3 and 4
Answer: (B)

15. The power of the Supreme Court of India to decide disputes between two or more States falls under its
(A) Advisory Jurisdiction
(B) Appellate Jurisdiction
(C) Original Jurisdiction
(D) Writ Jurisdiction
Answer: (C)

16. Which of the following statements are correct?
There are seven Union Territories in India.
Two Union Territories have Legislative Assemblies
One Union Territory has a High Court.
One Union Territory is, the capital of two States.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below
(A) 1 and 3 only
(B) 2 and 4 only
(C) 2, 3 and 4 only
(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Answer: (D)

17. Which of the following statements are correct about the Central Information Commission?
The Central Information Commission is a statutory body
The chief Information Commissioner and other Information Commissioners are appointed by the president of India.
The Commission can impose a penalty. upto a maximum  of Rs 25,000
It can punish an errant officer.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1, 2 and 4
(C) 1, 2 and 3
(D) 2, 3 and 4
Answer: (C)

18. Who among the following conducted the CNN-IBN _ The Hindu 2013 Election Tracker Survey across 267 constituencies in 18 States?
(A) The Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS)
(B) The Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR)
(C) CNN and IBN
(D) CNN, IBN and The Hindu
Answer: (A)

19. In certain code TEACHER is written as VGCEIGT. The code of CHILDREN will be
(D) None of these
Answer: (B)

20. A person has to buy both apples and mangoes. The cost of one apple is Rs 7/- whereas that of mango is Rs 5/-
If the person has Rs38, the number of apples he can buy is
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
Answer: (D)

21. A man pointing to a lady said, "The son of her only brother is the brother of my wife," The lady is related to the man as
(A) Mother's sister
(B) Grand mother
(C) Mother-in-law
(D) Sister of Father-in-law
Answer: (D)

22. In this series 6, 4, 1,2,2,8, 7,4,2,1,5,3,8,6,2,2,7,1,4,1,3,5,8,6,2,2,7,1,4,1,3,5,8,6
How many pairs of successive numbers have a difference of 2 each?
(A) 4
(B) 5
(C) 6
(D) 8
Answer: (B)

23. The mean marks obtained by a class of 40 students is 65; The mean marks of half of the students is found to be 45. The mean marks of the remaining students is
(A) 85
(B) 60
(C) 70
(D) 65
Answer: (A)

24. Anil is twice as old as Sunita. Three years ago, he was three times as old as Sunita. The present age of Anil is
(A) 6 years
(B) 8 years
(C) 12 years
(D) 16 years
Answer: (C)

25. Which of the following is a social network?
(B) eBay
(D) Twitter
Answer: (D)

26. The population information is called parameter while the corresponding sample information is known as
(A) Universe
(B) Inference
(C) Sampling design
(D) Statistics
Answer: (D)

27. While delivering lecture if there is some disturbance in the class, a teacher should
(A) keep quiet for a while and then continue.
(B) punish those causing disturbance
(C) motivate to teach those causing disturbance
(D) not bother of what is happening in the class
Answer: (A)

28. Effective teaching is a function of
(A) Teacher's satisfaction.
(B) Teacher's honesty and commitment'
(C) Teacher's making students learn and understand
(D) Teacher's liking for professional excellence.
Answer: (C)

29. The most appropriate meaning of learning is
(A) Acquisition of-skills
(B) Modification of behaviour
(C) Personal adjustment
(D) Inculcation of knowledge
Answer: (B)

30. Analyse the following teaching process in order:
(i) Relate the Present knowledge with Previous one
(ii) Evaluation
(iii) Reteaching
(iv) Formulating instructional objectives
(v) Presentation of instructional materials
(A) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v)
(B) (ii), (i), (iii), (iv), (v)
(C) (v), (iv), (iii), (i), (ii)
(D) (iv), (i), (v), (ii), (iii)
Answer: (D)

31. CIET stands for
(A) Centre for Integrated Education and Technology
(B) Central Institute for Engineering and Technology
(C) Central Institute for Education Technology
(D) Centre for Integrated Evaluation Techniques.
Answer: (C)

32. Teacher's role at higher education
(A) provide information to students.
(B) promote self learning in students.
(C) encourage healthy competition among students.
(D) help students to solve their problems.
Answer: (A)

33. The Verstehen School of Understanding was popularised by
(A) German Social scientists
(B) American philosophers
(C) British Academicians
(D) Italian political Analysts
Answer: (A)

34. The sequential operations in scientific research are
(A) Co-vaiation, Elimination of Spurious Relations, Generalisation, Theorisation
(B) Generalisation, Co_variation, Theorisation, Elimination of Spurious Relations
(C) Theorisation, Generalisation, Elimination of Spurious Relations, Co-variation
(D) Elimination of Spurious Relations, Theorisation, Generalisation, Co-variation.
Answer: (C)

35. In sampling, the lottery method is used for
(A) Interpretation
(B) Theorisation
(C) Conceptualisation
(D) Randomisation
Answer: (D)

36. In communication myths have power but are
(A) uncultural
(B) insignificant
(C) irnPrecise
(D) unPrefered
Answer: (C)

37. The first multi-lingual news agency of India was
(A) Samachar
(C) Hindustan Samachar
(D) Samachar Bharati
Answer: (C)

38. Organisational  communication can be equated with
(A) intra-personal communication
(B) inter personal communication
(C) group communication
(D) mass comrnunication
Answer: (C)

39. If two propositions having the same subject and predicate terms are such that one is the denial of the other' the relationship  between them is called
(A) Contradictory
(B) Contrary
(C) Sub-contrary
(D) Sub-alteration
Answer: (A)

40. Ananaya nad Krishna can speak and follow English. Bulbul can write and speak Hindi as Archana does. Archana talks with Ananya also in Bengali. Krishna can not follow Bengali. Bulbul talks with Ananya in Hindi. Who can speak and follow English, Hindi and Bengali?
(A) Archana
(B) Bulbul
(C) Ananya
(D) Krishna
Answer: (C)

41. A stipulative definition may be said to be
(A) Always true
(B) Always false
(C) Sometimes true, sometimes false
(D) Neither true nor false
Answer: (D)

42. When the conclusion of  an argument  follows  from its premise/premises
Conclusively, the argument is called
(A) Circular argument
(B) Inductive argument
(C) Deductive argument
(D) Analogical argument
Answer: (C)

43. Saturn and Mars are planets like the earth. They borrow light from the Sun and moves around the sun as the Earth does. So those. planets are inhabited by various  orders of creatures as the earth is
What type of argument is contained in the above passage ? ,
(A) Deductive
(B) Astrological
(C) Analogical
(D) Mathematical
Answer: (A)

44. Given below are two premises. Four conclusions are drawn from those two premises in four codes. Select the code that states the conclusion validly drawn.
(i) All saints are religious. (major)
(ii) Some honest persons are saints.(minor)
(A) All saints are honest
(B) Some saints are honest.
(C) All religious persons are honest
(D) Some honest persons are religious.
Answer: (B)

45. Which is the main objective of research?
(A) To review the literature
(B) To summarize what is already known
(C) To get an academic degree
(D) To discover new facts or to make fresh interpretation of known facts
Answer: (D)

46. sampling error decreases with the
(A) decrease in sample size
(B) increase in sample size
(C) Process of randomization
(D) process of analysis
Answer: (B)

47. The Principles of fundamental research  are used in
(A) action research
(B) applied research
(C) Philosophical research
(D) historical  research
Answer: (A)

48. Users  who use media for their own  ends are identified as
(A) Passive audience
(B) Active Audience
(C) Positive Audience
(D) Negative audience
Answer: (B)

49. Classroom communication can be described as
(A) Exploration
(B) Institutionalisation
(C) Unsignified narration
(D) Discourse
Answer: (A)

50. Ideological codes shape our collective
(A) Productions
(B) Perceptions
(C) Consumptions
(D) Creations
Answer: (B)

51. Following table provides details about the Foreign Tourist Arrivals (FTAs) in India from different regions of the'world in different years. Study the table carefully and answer questions from 51 to 55 based on this table.

51. Find out the region that contributed around 20 percent of the total foreign tourist arrivals in India in 2009.

(A) Western Europe
(B) North America
(C) South Asia
(D) South East Asia

Answer: (B)

52. Which of the following regions has recorded the highest negative growth rate of foreign tourist arrivals in India in 2009?
(A) Western Europe
(B) North America
(C) South Asia
(D) West Asia 
Answer: (A)

53. Find out the region that has been showing declining trend in terms of share of foreign tourist arrivals in India in 2008 and 2009.
(A) Western Europe
(B) South East Asia
(C) East Asia
(D) West Asia 
Answer: (C)

54. Identify the region that has shown hyper growth rate of foreign tourist arrivals than the growth rate of the total FTAs in India in 2008.
(A) Western Europe
(B) North America
(C) South Asia
(D) East Asia
Answer: (A)

Kissan Kerala youtube channel

Kissan Kerala youtube channel provides informative videos in malayalam  on Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries and allied topics.

Please see the play list in this channel to view the complete list of videos.

Comparison among malayalam and other languages available in Google Translate

Malayalam Language -38 million speakers language is excluded in Google Translate!! .See the list of languages available in Google Translate and native speakers  which is less than the Classical Malayalam language .

Language and Native speakers

  1. Afrikaans-7.1 million ,
  2. Albanian-7.4 million ,
  3. Armenian-6 million ,
  4. Azerbaijani-23 million ,
  5. Basque-7.2 Lakhs,
  6. Belarusian-4 million ,
  7. Bosnian-3.5 million ,
  8. Bulgarian-10 million ,
  9. Catalan-7.2 million ,
  10. Cebuano-21 million ,
  11. Croatian-5.5 million ,
  12. Czech-10 million ,
  13. Danish-5.6 million ,
  14. Dutch-23 million ,
  15. Esperanto-2 million ,
  16. Estonian-1.05 million ,
  17. Filipino-28 million ,
  18. Finnish-5 million ,
  19. Galician-3.2 million ,
  20. Georgian-7 million ,
  21. Greek-13 million ,
  22. Haitian Creole-9.6 million ,
  23. Hebrew-5.3 million , 
  24. Hmong-4 million ,
  25. Hungarian-14 million ,
  26. Icelandic-3.2 Lakhs , 
  27. Indonesian-23 million , 
  28. Irish-1.80 million , 
  29. Khmer-16 million , 
  30. Lao- 25 million , 
  31. Latin - Dead Langauge , 
  32. Latvian-1.3 million , 
  33. Lithuanian-3.1 million ,
  34. Macedonian-2.5 million ,
  35. Maltese-4.3Lakhs , 
  36. Norwegian-5 million ,
  37. Romanian-25 million , 
  38. Serbian-10.2 million , 
  39. Slovak-5 million , 
  40. Slovenian-2.5 million , 
  41. Swedish-8.5 million ,
  42. Thai-20 million , 
  43. Ukrainian-37 million , 
  44. Welsh-7.2 Lakhs
  45. Yiddish-1.5 million

Malayalam -38 million

Indian Civil Service Exam Help

Union-State and interstate communication

The language in which communications between different states, or from the union government to a state or a person in a state, shall be sent is regulated by the Official Languages Act and, for states other than Tamil Nadu, by the Official Languages Rules. Communication between states who use Hindi as their official language is required to be in Hindi, whereas communication between a state whose official language is Hindi and one whose is not is required to be in English, or in Hindi with an accompanying English translation (unless the receiving state agrees to dispense with the translation).

Communication between the union and states which use Hindi as their official language (classified by the Official Language Rules as "the states in Region A"), and with persons who live in those states, is generally in Hindi, except in certain cases.Communication with a second category of states, which do not use Hindi as their official language but have elected to communicate with the union in Hindi (currently Gujarat and Maharashtra) is usually in Hindi, whilst communications sent to an individual in those states may be in either Hindi or English. Communication with all other states, and with people living in them, is in English.

India -State Legislature and administration-Language

The constitutional provisions in relation to use of the official language in legislation at the State level largely mirror those relating to the official language at the central level, with minor variations. State legislatures may conduct their business in their official language, Hindi or (for a transitional period, which the legislature can extend if it so chooses) English, and members who cannot use any of these have the same rights to their mother tongue with the Speaker's permission. The authoritative text of all laws must be in English, unless Parliament passes a law permitting a state to use another language, and if the original text of a law is in a different language, an authoritative English translation of all laws must be prepared.

The state has the right to regulate the use of its official language in public administration, and in general, neither the constitution nor any central enactment imposes any restriction on this right. However, every person submitting a petition for the redress of a grievance to an officer or authority of the state government has a constitutional right to submit it in any language used in that state, regardless of its official status.

In addition, the constitution grants the central government, acting through the President, the power to issue certain directives to the government of a state in relation to the use of minority languages for official purposes. The President may direct a State to officially recognise a language spoken in its territory for specified purposes and in specified regions, if its speakers demand it and satisfy him that a substantial proportion of the State's population desire its use. Similarly, States and local authorities are required to endeavour to provide primary education in the mother tongue for all linguistic minorities, regardless of whether or not their language is official in that State, and the President has the power to issue directions he deems necessary to ensure that they are provided these facilities.

The Hindu News :‘Early schooling must be in mother-tongue'

An award-winning Jaipur-based neurologist has advocated imparting primary education to children in their mother-tongue, saying it would produce youngsters possessing “fundamentally strong personalities” bestowed with wisdom, motivation, better communication skills and creativity.

Need for establishing Library Council of India (LCI)

Library profession in India  need a quality agency or a statutory body  like MCI,BAR Council of India for :
  • Establishment and maintenance of standards for LIS education and LIS profession
  • Improving the professional status of library staffs .
  • Recognition of foreign LIS qualifications in India.
  • Accreditation of LIS schools, Departments in India
  • Registration of librarians with recognized qualifications.
  • Keeping a directory of all registered Librarians.
  • Better remuneration  of Library Staffs.
  • Affiliations of various State and national associations
  • Co ordination of library activities in india
  • Sharing of resources....and much more...........

Open-source ILS

  •     Evergreen
  •     Greenstone
  •     Invenio
  •     Koha
  •     Kuali OLE
  •     NewGenLib
  •     PhpMyBibli
  •     OpenBiblio
  •     VuFind

List of next-generation library catalogs

An online public access catalog (often abbreviated as OPAC or simply "library catalog") is an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries. Users typically search a library catalog to locate books, periodicals, audio/visual materials or other items under control of a library.

As access to the internet became more accessible to more people library users have grown more and more accustomed to these sites and search engines. They have become increasingly dissatisfied with the search mechanisms of older library catalog systems. This has, in turn, led to vocal criticisms of these systems within the library community itself, and in recent years to the development of newer (often termed 'next-generation') catalogs. However, the large cost associated with these new systems has significantly hindered the widespread use of new systems.

The newest generation of library catalog systems are distinguished from earlier OPACs by their use of more sophisticated search technologies, in particular faceted search, and features aimed at greater user interaction and participation with the system, including tagging, reviewing, and RSS feeds.

However, the usefulness of these catalogs is limited by inconsistent metadata standards that vary from publisher to publisher. There is also the concern that only newly digitized material can be found while older material, published on different platforms that are no longer supported is effectively lost. Libraries are then faced with the expensive and time consuming task of reapplying new metadata tags to ensure these older records can become discoverable. At present there is no single standard for metadata records.

See below for a list of some next generation library catalog systems.


    Axiell Arena
    Carmen (LANius)
    CS Library
    Ebsco Discovery Service
    LS2 PAC and LS2 Kids from The Library Corporation (TLC)
    POLARIS PAC, Mobile PAC, Polaris Library Systems
    Primo (ExLibris)
    Prism 3 (Capita)
    Retrievo (KEEP SOLUTIONS)
    Serials Solutions Summon
    VTLS Inc.
    WorldCat Local (OCLC)

Open source

    Avanti MicroLCS
    Blacklight OPAC
    Rapi package
    Social Online Public Access Catalog (SOPAC)

Glossary of library and information science


    abstract – a brief set of statements that summarize, classifies, evaluates, or describes the important points of a text, particularly a journal article. An abstract is typically found on the first page of a scholarly article. Because an abstract summarizes an article, it is very useful for either browsing or keyword searching.

    annotation – an explanatory or critical note or commentary. Annotation is also the process of adding an explanatory or critical note or commentary to a text. Reference lists are often annotated with comments about what each resource covered and how useful it was.

    appendix – a group of supplementary material appended to a text. It is usually related to the material in the main part of the text but not so closely related to it that it should be put into the main text. Put background information and supporting facts in the appendices. An example of a file that should be put in an appendix is a file of detailed charts and graphs of recent research closely related to the paper's main topic.

    archive – a place in which historical documents and other records are preserved. Usually operated by large organizations, they may or may not be open to the public. The University of Toronto, for example has an archive that requires a five story building and contains several climate controlled vaults. A virtual archive is similar except the documents have no physical presence and seldom have historical value.

    author – an originator of a creative work, particularly a writer of a text. Searching by author can be an effective form of information gathering.

    authority control – a cataloging process in library management of assigning unique headings to subjects such as author names and book titles to enable greater efficiency in referencing.[1][2]


    bibliography – a list of writings related to a specific subject, writings by a specific author, or writings used in producing a specific text.

    bibiographic database is a computer based list of library resources. Typically each record contains the call number, author, title, publishing information, and other card catalog information.

    Boolean logic – the algebraic system, developed by George Boole that is applied to Boolean expressions that contain Boolean operators such as AND, OR, NOT AND, and XOR (exclusive OR). This binary algebraic system is used primarily in switching circuits and database searches. Boolean operators are not to be confused with proximity operators such as NEAR.

    browse – to inspect something casually, particularly to use an internet browser to casually inspect Web pages. This involves following links from page to page (also called surfing) rather than searching directly. The main difference between browsing and searching is that with browsing you have very little advance knowledge of what will be on the next page.


    call number – an identification marker used in libraries to categorize and locate books and other resources. Each resource is assigned a combination of letters and numbers which correspond with a location in the library. For example the call number for the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is BF76.7 .P83 2001.

    catalog (or catalogue) – a complete and systematically organized enumeration of items, particularly the complete enumeration of a libraries' resources on a set of paper cards (card catalog) or in an electronic database (bibliographic database).

    citation – the quoting or mentioning of a source. All works used in preparing a paper should be cited.

    citation search – a search, by name, of all references to an individual. Some databases have a specific citation search option, otherwise you use a full-text search. For an example of a database that has a specific citation search option go to the University of Michigan Library Database.

    Community analysis – the analysis of a set of people. Such analyses enable librarians to know the needs of patrons and hopefully provide better services to them. In a city library district, the set of relevant people would be all those who live in the city or those people eligible to use the library. Analysis may also be restricted to a subset of eligible library users.

    controlled vocabulary – limiting searches to the exact subject headings contained in the Library of Congress. An example would be "History – Bibliography etc". Some indexes, like Wilson Indexes, have their own system of headings and hence their own controlled vocabulary.

    copyright – the legal right granted to a copyright holder for the exclusive sale, distribution or reproduction of a creative work. It is a form of intellectual property that prevents others from using a creative work without consent of the owner. For example, Thomas Mann holds the copyright on the book The Oxford Guide to Library Research.

    cross reference database – a collection of records that have one or more fields that reference other related records. These connections (for example between "marketing" and "promotion") make browsing very productive and allow related-items searches.


    descriptor – an index term used to identify a record in a database. It can consist of a word, phrase, or alphanumerical term. It can describe the content of the record or be an arbitrary code. When a descriptor is descriptive, it can be an effective search parameter.

    dissertation – a written treatise or thesis, usually lengthy, usually authored by a doctoral candidate, usually directed by a faculty advisor, and usually intended to advance the state of the art in a given discipline. There can be an oral component to the process, in which the dissertation must be defended in front of critical judges. Dissertation searches are valuable because of their currency.

    document delivery – the transfer of a database record, or other information resource, to the end user. It can involve direct internet or email transfers, CD delivery via mail, paper delivery via mail, or delivery via interlibrary loan.


    edition – a version of a published text, or all the instances of a published text issued at a given time. An example would be the 2nd edition (2001).

    entry – any record, or a field in a record, that has been included, or entered, into a database. An entry word is the headword in a dictionary, encyclopedia, or glossary.


    field – an element of a database record. It contains one type of information and has a unique address. All or most other records in the database have a similar field. An example is the field "name".

    free-text search –

    1. is a simple word or character search, usually with very few Boolean, proximity, or scope limiting options. It is simple and fast.

    2. a search in which all the entries are freed from their original format of presentation. Text that originated in a journal article looks much the same as text that originated in a glossary or chat room.

    3. the deliberate limiting of the scope of the search parameters to include only records that are available free of charge.

    full text database – a collection of records containing complete versions of the original source, rather than just bibliographies, abstracts, or abridgements. An example is JSTOR. A related concept is that of a full text search which searches only sources that are complete, and ignores those records that are mere abstracts or descriptors.


    interlibrary loan or interloan – a service whereby a user of one library can borrow books or receive photocopies of documents that are owned by another library. The user makes a request with their local library, which, acting as an intermediary, identifies owners of the desired item, places the request, receives the item, makes it available to the user, and arranges for its return. This resource sharing system is being promoted by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA).


    journal – a periodical publication that presents articles in a specific subject area. These may be academic journals, trade journals, or organizational newsletters.


    keyword search – a search of a database using some keyword, a significant word from the title, abstract, or descriptor of a record as a point of reference to the article's overall content.


    literature search – A systematic and thorough search of all material, print or electronic, published on a given topic. This can include books, journals, newspapers, catalogs, encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, bibliographies, handbooks, manuals, indexes, yearbooks, gazetteers, directories, chronologies, almanacs, and guides.


    menu – a list of options from which a computer user can choose. This saves the user from having to memorize a set of commands. It also reduces the decision down to the basic information required (note the etymology from the French word minuet meaning small).

    monograph – a written document on a single subject, usually scholarly in nature and of approximately book length. They are valuable information sources because of their depth in a limited subject area.


    operators – symbols that represent operations. In computer science there are binary and unary operators depending on the number of elements or records an operator acts on. In database searching there are Boolean and Proximity operators. Boolean operators are a subclass of logical operators (Logical operators are binary operators that manipulate data at the bit level.). A Boolean operator manipulates the binary "true/false" value.

    online catalog or electronic catalog – a record of the holdings of an institution (e.g. library or museum) or group of institutions (a consortium), often searchable, that can be found on the Internet.

    open source- in production and development a philosophy or methodology promoting free redistribution and access to an end product's design and implementation details.


    periodical index – an alphabetized listing of works that are published at regular intervals of more than one day.

    plagiarism – the passing off as your own, the work of others'. Original sources are not given credit.

    primary source – the originator of a primary record. A primary record is a resource created by the same people that initially experienced or used it. They create the records for their own purposes, records that often remain unpublished. Sometimes they witness an event, sometimes they are involved in an event, and sometimes the record is directly created by the event.


    record – an individual entry in a database and simultaneously a collection of related data fields. Each field, although related, is of a different type to all the other fields in the record (and this is what differentiates a record from an array).

    Reference Service – the personal assistance provided to the library users in finding information. All the functions performed by a trained librarian employed in the reference section of a library to meet the information needs of patrons (in person, by telephone, or electronically), including but not limited to answering substantive questions, instructing users in the selection and use of appropriate tools and techniques for finding information, conducting searches on behalf of the patron, directing users to the location of library resources, assisting in the evaluation of information, referring patrons to resources outside the library when appropriate, etc. are regarded as the services provided under library reference services.

    review article – a periodical article that describes, analyses', and criticizes a book, journal article, movie, or other creative or academic work.


    scholarly article – an article, usually in a scholarly journal, that deals with academic subject matter at an advanced level.

    search strategy – a generalized set of technique used in the process of determining what information you currently have, determining what information you need, and determining how to get it. Some possible strategies include; controlled vocabulary searches, specific entry searches, browsing, general scanning, broad to narrow searches, adjacent item browsing, subject tracings searches, keyword searches, citation searches, literature searches, cross reference searches, and chat room questions and other direct people contact searches.

    subject heading – the name of the category that a record is included under. For example, the record "natural frequency of vibration" might be found under the subject heading of "Acoustics", and acoustics, in turn, might be found under the subject heading "Physics".

    subject directory – an hierarchical grouping of related subject headings. The tree structure shows relationships between subject headings. They can be found either inside a database or separate from a data base.


    thesaurus – a book of synonyms, often also containing antonyms. An example is Roget's Thesaurus. In database searching, a thesaurus strategy is to use multiple iterations to search for related words and generate results. The database will often suggest synonyms and related words to try.

    truncation – the shortening of a search word, field, or record. In the case of truncating a search word, this is a strategy used to search among multiple variants or spellings of a word. The asterisk (*) is generally used as a wildcard to replace a letter or letters. An example is invest* which will pick up instances of invest, investor, investments, investigations, etc. In some databases the asterisk must be accompanied with a number that define the number of characters that can be truncated.

Library science journals

  1.     ABI Technik
  2.     African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science
  3.     American Archivist
  4.     Annual Review of Information Science and Technology
  5.     Archivaria
  6.     Archives and Museum Informatics
  7.     Cataloging & Classification Quarterly
  8.     The Charleston Advisor
  9.     Children & Libraries
  10.     College & Research Libraries
  11.     College & Research Libraries News
  12.     Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship
  13.     Evidence Based Library and Information Practice (journal)
  14.     Florida Libraries
  15.     Information & Culture
  16.     Information Processing and Management
  17.     Information Research (journal)
  19.     The Journal of Academic Librarianship
  20.     Journal of Documentation
  21.     Journal of Information Science
  22.     Journal of Informetrics
  23.     Journal of Library Administration
  24.     Journal of Religious & Theological Information
  25.     Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology
  26.     Knowledge Organization (journal)
  27.     Library and information science
  28.     Library and Information Science Abstracts
  29.     Library Literature and Information Science
  30.     The Library Quarterly
  31.     Library Review (journal)
  32.     Library Trends
  33.     Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts
  34.     MLA Forum
  35.     Notes (journal)
  36.     Portal – Libraries and the Academy
  37.     Public Libraries (journal)
  38.     The Public-Access Computer Systems Review
  39.     Reference and User Services Quarterly
  40.     Scientometrics (journal)

Library science magazines

  1. American Libraries
  2. Ariadne (web magazine)
  3. Book Links
  4. Booklist
  5. D-Lib Magazine
  6. Library Journal
  7. News Journal, (National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped)
  8. School Library Journal
  9. Wilson Library Bulletin
  10. Young Adult Library Services

30 September -International Translation Day

International Translation Day is celebrated every year on 30 September on the feast of St. Jerome, the Bible translator who is considered the patron saint of translators.

Why i always prefer to drive an Ambassador Car ?

Ambassador Car : Ambassador crowned world's best taxi by BBC Top Gear in 2013
  • Comfortable and Spacious car
  • Easy Maintenance
  • Much Less Expensive
  • Long Term Savings on Maintenance
  • Best Off-Road Ability
  • Mileage - Around 17-21 km/L
  • Strong Metallic Body
  • Classic Design
  • Powerful Engine
  • Good Boot Space
  • Better Back Seat Drive
  • Strong Well Built Body line
  • Safe Structure
  • Very Easily Repairable
  • Spare Prats Availability
  • Load Up To 8 People at a Time
  • It Had Good Suspensions 
  • Ideal For The Rugged Indian Terrain.
  • Six Colour Options - Jet Black, Lunar Silver, Fire Brick Red, Oyster Blue, Ecru Beige And Crystal White.
 Some of My Suggestions to improvement
  • Reduce the Weight
  • Make the Turning Radius Smooth.
  • Change The Interior.
  • Change the Dash Board Plastic.
  • Add ABS
  • Reduce the price tag to 3-4 Lakhs

Tamil Nadu Uniform System of School Education

Tamil Nadu Uniform System of School Education or Equitable education system is a School Education Department of Government of Tamil Nadu, India programme to integrate the various school educational systems within the state. There are over 1.2 crore students in four streams of school education comprising about 45,000 state board schools, 11,000 matriculation schools, 25 oriental schools and 50 Anglo-Indian schools, with different syllabus, textbooks and schemes of examinations. Uniform System of School Education was implemented by Tamil Nadu Uniform System of School Education Act 2010 which paves way for quality education to all children without any discrimination based on their economic, social or cultural background.

Need a Uniform Education System in Kerala

The basic structure of school education in Kerala consists of 7 years of primary school education, 3 years of Secondary and 2 years of HigherSecondary Education .Kerala have different streams of education like Kerala Secondary School Leaving Certificate (SSLC) stream Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) stream or Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) stream.This kind of different stream of education will be violate the Constitutional Rights- Equality .Every citizen are equal then the Government should follow a Uniform System of School Education through mother tongue.CBSE stream are comparatively functioning well and good syllabus.So please change the State Board syllabus and follow a centralised based syllabus.Uniform System of School Education enforce good quality in education to all children, without any discrimination on the ground of their economic, social or cultural background.


  • Maintain a uniformity in curriculum
  • Same  textbooks, same  syllabus to the entire state
  • Same schemes of examinations
  • Uniform teaching methodology
  • No discrimination to students
  • Equality in school education

Book review :-Gandhi Before India by Ramachandra Guha

The Telegraph -Book reviws

The Story of the Jews, by Simon Schama, review

How to write a book review

Are you interested in book review then read the article 

Koha SQL Command List of items added in between two dates

SELECT sum(items.barcode), items.barcode,items.dateaccessioned,biblio.title, FROM items LEFT JOIN biblioitems on (items.biblioitemnumber=biblioitems.biblioitemnumber) LEFT JOIN biblio on (biblioitems.biblionumber=biblio.biblionumber)   WHERE biblio.datecreated >= 'yyyy-mm-dd' AND biblio.datecreated <= 'yyyy-mm-dd' GROUP BY items.barcode ORDER BY items.dateaccessioned asc

  Change the two dates as per the order like ( yyyy-mm-dd 2013-01-01 to  2013-06-27)

Google Translate

In August 2008, Google launched a Google Translate

English to German

English to Spanish

French to English

German to English

Spanish to English

2nd stage

English to Portuguese

English to Dutch

Portuguese to English

Dutch to English

3rd stage

English to Tagalog/Filipino

Filipino/Tagalog to English

4th stage

English to Chinese (Simplified)

English to Japanese

English to Korean

Chinese (Simplified) to English

Japanese to English

Korean to English

5th stage (launched April 2006)[19]

English to Arabic

Arabic to English

6th stage (launched December 2006)

English to Russian

Russian to English

7th stage (launched February 2007)

English to Chinese (Traditional)

Chinese (Simplified to Traditional)

Chinese (Traditional) to English

Chinese (Traditional to Simplified)

8th stage (launched October 2007)

all 25 language pairs use Google's machine translation system

9th stage

English to Hindi

Hindi to English

10th stage (as of this stage, translation can be done between any two languages, going through English, if needed[clarification needed]) (launched May 2008)











11th stage (launched September 25, 2008)












12th stage (launched January 30, 2009)








13th stage (launched June 19, 2009)


14th stage (launched August 24, 2009)










15th stage (launched November 19, 2009)

The Beta stage is finished. Users can now choose to have the romanization written for Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Greek, Hindi and Thai. For translations from Arabic, Persian and Hindi, the user can enter a Latin transliteration of the text and the text will be transliterated to the native script for these languages as the user is typing. The text can now be read by a text-to-speech program in English, Italian, French and German

16th stage (launched January 30, 2010)

Haitian Creole

17th stage (launched April 2010)

Speech program launched in Hindi and Spanish

18th stage (launched May 5, 2010)

Speech program launched in Afrikaans, Albanian, Catalan, Chinese (Mandarin), Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Greek, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Latvian, Macedonian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Swahili, Swedish, Turkish, Vietnamese and Welsh (based in eSpeak).[20]

19th stage (launched May 13, 2010)[21]






20th stage (launched June 2010)

Provides romanization for Arabic.

21st stage (launched September 2010)

Allows phonetic typing for Arabic, Greek, Hindi, Persian, Russian, Serbian and Urdu.


22nd stage (launched December 2010)

Romanization of Arabic removed.

Spell check added.

Google replaced some languages' text-to-speech synthesizers from eSpeak's robot voice to native speaker's nature voice technologies made by SVOX (Chinese, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Greek, Hungarian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Swedish, Turkish). Also the old versions of French, German, Italian and Spanish. Latin uses the same synthesizer as Italian.

Speech program launched in Arabic, Japanese, and Korean.

23rd stage (launched January 2011)

Choice of different translations for a word.

24th stage (Launched June 2011)

5 new Indic languages (in alpha) and a transliterated input method:






25th stage (launched July 2011)

Translation rating introduced.

26th stage (launched January 2012)

Dutch male voice synthesizer replaced with female.

Elena by SVOX replaced the Slovak eSpeak voice.

Transliteration of Yiddish added.

27th stage (launched February 2012)

Speech program launched in Thai.

Esperanto added.

28th stage (launched September 2012)

Lao added.

29th stage (launched October 2012)

Transliteration of Lao added.

(alpha status).

30th stage (launched October 2012)

New speech program launched in English

31st stage (launched November 2012)

New speech program in French, Spanish, Italian, and German

32nd stage (launched March 2013)

Phrasebook added.

33rd stage (launched April 2013)

Khmer added.

34th stage (launched May 2013)






35th stage (launched May 2013)

16 additional languages can be used with camera-input: Bulgarian, Catalan, Danish, Estonian, Finnish, Croatian, Hungarian, Indonesian, Icelandic, Lithuanian, Latvian, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, and Swedish.

10 Uses Of Google Translate To Cross The Great Language Divide

Google Translate is building bridges between languages and cultures; last year Google announced that the Google Translate service was being used 200 million users monthly.

Read more

How Google Translate Works Its Magic

Google Translate has reached a milestone of 200 million users on


Malayalam translation services in Google translate

A petition to Google

We  need malayalam translation services in Google Translate.Google Translate,a free multilingual statistical machine from Google Inc. provides translation services for written text. In the 24th stage of the project (Launched June 2011) 5 new Indic languages (in alpha) and a transliterated input method: Bengali,Gujarati,Kannada,Tamil,Telugu were added but Malayalam langauge - the Classical language has been excluded.
Malayalam, spoken in India, is a language predominant in the state of Kerala. It is one of the 22   officially recognized languages of India specially in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry. It was declared a classical language by the Government of India in 2013. Belonging to the Dravidian family of language it is spoken and cherished by approximately 37.5 million people.

People of Kerala enjoy the highest proportion of  Internet access facility and Internet usage than in any other Indian state.The government of Kerala has initiated measures to improve computer and ICT skills of people living in Kerala  through  the Akshaya Project and the IT@School Project. These projects  have  played a major role in enhancing e-literacy by conducting  training programmes in association with Kerala State IT Mission and various IT companies.Both projects aim at bridging the digital divide, providing training in basic computer skill  and enabling availability of relevant content through the use of Malayalam language .The Akshaya Centres located all over Kerala  have emerged as a major channel between government and citizens, services which now work as a backbone of the governance system in Kerala.

Thus, all activities of the program reach their goal through Malayalam Language and Malayalam Computing. Furthermore, Kerala  also has the highest number of users and promoters of free and open source softwares. The better use of websites and information necessitates a translation service. Consequently, it's highly recommended that Google start  translation services for Malayalam in Google Translate.

Why Google translation for Malayalam?

1.To transalate all websites,webpages in English to Malayalam and vice versa
2.All Wikipedia articles can easily translate to Malayalam
3. To enable fast, easy translation from one language to another, directly on a Computer , smartphone or tablet.
4.Translate  english PDF eBooks
5.A Universal Communicator in Your Pocket
6. Convenience of use
7.Fast, accurate translation
8.Simple user interface for all  (UI)
9.Independence from sponsorship.
10.Three other south indian languages (Tamil,Kannada,Telugu) have already been included Google Translation

Written by Jomy Jose :a malayalam language lover and fighter for malayalam mode education system  from Primary to Ph.D level
Visit Malayalatthanima Blog :a malayalam blog for the promotion of  Classic  Malayalam Language 

The Importance of Mother Tongue

It is a universal principle backed by research, to teach early childhood education in the mother tongue of the child.

Read more 

Kalam favours imparting science education in mother tongue

Former President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam has favoured imparting science education to children in vernacular languages to encourage creativity and enable easy grasp of the subject.Interacting with students at the Dharampeth Science College during its golden jubilee function here last night, Mr. Kalam said, “I studied up to tenth standard through vernacular medium and later picked up English.”He advised teachers to bring out creativity in children and teach them science in their mother-tongue.

“Creativity is the key to success in the future and primary education is where teachers can bring creativity in children at that level,” he said adding teachers should become facilitators of innovativeness.
Underlining the importance of righteousness, Mr. Kalam said it leads to beauty in character which in turn brings peace in world, harmony in home and order in nation.“The country needs righteousness in heart and ethics,” he said.
Mr. Kalam advised teachers to make children “employment generators and not mere employment seekers”.

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